The skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans it is the largest organ of theintegumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals except that it is not protected by a pelt and appears hairless though in fact nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin. The adjective cutaneousliterally means of the skin (from Latincutis, skin).
Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.
In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily. Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habit for bacteria which number roughly a 1000 species from 19 phyla.
Skin has mesodermal cells, pigmentation, or melanin, provided by melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous (UV) in sunlight. It also contains DNA-repair enzymes that help reverse UV damage, and people who lack the genes for these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. One form predominantly produced by UV light, malignant melanoma, is particularly invasive, causing it to spread quickly, and can often be deadly. Human skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner. This has led to the classification of people(s) on the basis of skin color.
The skin is the largest organ in the human body. For the average adult human, the skin has a surface area of between 1.5-2.0 square metres (16.1-21.5 sq ft.), most of it is between 2,3 mm (0.10 inch) thick. The average square inch (6.5 cm 2;) of skin holds 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes, and more than 1,000 nerve endings.
Skin performs the following functions:
Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense;Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.
Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury; see somatosensory system and haptics.
Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat.
Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.
Aesthetics and communication: others see our skin and can assess our mood, physical state and attractiveness.
Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin.
Excretion: sweat contains urea, however its concentration is 1/130th that of urine, hence excretion by sweating is at most a secondary function to temperature regulation.
Absorption: In addition, medicine can be administered through the skin, by ointments or by means of adhesive patch, such as the nicotine patch or iontophoresis. The skin is an important site of transport in many other organisms.
Water resistance: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients aren't washed out of the body.
Skin care must be an essential part of your beauty regime and you should be very sincere about your skin care routine and follow some certain rules. However you should know all the skin care procedures properly. For some special treatments you should go to a reputed beauty salon and have a facial and skin treatment. Moreover only superficial treatments can’t make a skin glowing you also have to maintain a strict dietary routine. Living a stress free life is also important to have a healthy skin. Thus a little bit exercise or workout helps you decrease many problems regarding skin and health.
Women always aspire for a spotless beautiful face and go on applying various products in order to make tem beautiful; however remember lots of face care products are available in the products and not every item is standard. Before selecting an item, go for a short market survey through internet go for the reputed brands. Also you must know your skin type because different products are made for different skin types. Also try some homemade masks for your face. They can be easily prepared though equally effective. Some effective home masks are as follows:
Oily skin care
An oily skin is pimple prone and thus needs some extra treatment. If you have an oily skin then you can prepare this homemade mask. Take the white portion of an egg and mix it with two tablespoons of honey and one teaspoon of lemon juice. Mashed two strawberries and mix the paste with his solution. Now apply it to your face and leave until the paste dries. Now wash the face with lukewarm water. Do it once a week for better result. Persons having oily skin must avoid fried foods. They should also use mild body wash.
Dry skin care
Persons having dry skin must be benefited with this home made mask. Make a smooth paste with milk cream and multani mitti and apply it on your face. Leave it until it dries and wash with fresh cold water. People with dry skin should use cream soap. Furthermore, they must include lots of dairy products in their meals.
Men skin care
A man with a good physic always attracts. However a shining and glowing skin adds an extra charm to a man’s look. To get a problem free skin every man should follow a certain skin care routine. Take twice a day with a mild body wash and after that apply an herbal moisturizing lotion to your whole body. Persons having oily skin can use toner instead of a moisturizer. Regular shaving is also required. Choose shaving kit from a reputed brand. Long beard must be well maintained.
Tips for all types of complexion and skin
Avoid junk foods and try to eat green vegetables and fruits in plenty.
Apply a sunscreen or sun block lotion before going out.
Remove your make up with a cleanser after returning home.
Drink lots of fluids including fruits juices and water.
Go for natural remedies.
Skin Care Product
A number of reputed cosmetic brands are available worldwide offering several skincare products and the items thoroughly tasted and thus very effective on skin. Some of the most popular skin care brands are Nivea, Olay and Maybelline.
Treatment for SKIN
Everyone likes to have a healthy skin and look younger. We will teach you the skin treatments, which will help to have a healthy skin and also to retain that youthful glow, proliferate everywhere.
Your skin is the largest single organ of your body. It’s also the most vulnerable. Start educating yourself immediately! There is no reason not to fight the aging process with every tool at your disposal. Now you can get the facts about “anti-aging” and what you can do to forestall it.
Our Skin Treatment Guide is categorized into skin treatment, skin care basics, natural skin care and exclusive information on various kinds of acne treatment methods & products available today.
The Skin Treatment section deals with different types of skin treatments, how to protect your skin from sun using skin care products, Dermabrasion – a surgical procedure, skin creams and chemical peels.
The Skin Care Basics section deals with complete information on skin aging, types of skins, factors effecting the skin, evaluating your skin type, oily skin care, dry skin care, combination skincare and also about skin rash.
The Natural Skin Care section tells you about different natural skin care tips, skin cancer, free radical damage to the skin, natural skin care with good nutrition and vitamins.
Acne Products section provides you with the information relating to the review and ranking of top five acne products.
Lastly, the Acne Treatment section, which deals with causes of acne, myths and truths about acne, acne prevention methods, different acne treatments, natural acne treatments and acne tips.
One of the most effective ways to heal aging skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles is through the use of natural skin care. By omitting unnatural ingredients and using only natural and organic elements, you can heal and repair the skin most effectively.
Learn about Acne in Layman’s Terms and find out more about Myths and the Reality of dealing Effectively with Acne Relief once and for all. Take advantage of our current research guide and join the Happy People who are clearing up their Acne issues now.
Dry skin has a low level of sebum and can be prone to sensitivity. The skin has a parched look caused by its inability to retain moisture. It usually feels "tight" and uncomfortable after washing unless some type of moisturizer or skin cream is applied. Chapping and cracking are signs of extremely dry, dehydrated skin.
Dryness is exacerbated by wind, extremes of temperature and air-conditioning, all of which cause the skin to flake, chap and feel tight. This type of skin is tightly drawn over bones. It looks dull, especially on the cheeks and around the eyes. There may be tiny expression lines on these spots and at the comers of the mouth.
The oil glands do not supply enough lubrication to the skin. As a result, the skin becomes dehydrated.
Skin gets exposed to the elements especially in winter.
Dry skin could be due to a genetic condition.
Poor diet. Nutritional deficiencies, especially deficiencies of vitamin A and the B vitamins, can also contribute to dry skin.
Environmental factors such as exposure to sun, wind, cold, chemicals, or cosmetics, or excessive bathing with harsh soaps.
Conditions such as dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, or seborrhea.
Dry Skin Could Also Be From:
Dry skin can be a sign of an underactive thyroid.
Serious skin complications can arise for people with diabetes.
Certain drugs, including diuretics, antispasmodics, and antihistamines, can contribute to dry skin.
How To Care for Dry Skin
Avoid the use of tap water when cleansing dry skin. The deposits are too drying on the skin. And never, ever use hot water. Use mineral water to freshen your face. Don't use a washcloth-a rough texture can irritate. In the morning, apply a spray of mineral water on your skin misted on with a plant sprayer. (Do not use a sprayer that had been used for spraying insecticides.) Lightly pat dry.
Dry skin needs plenty of thorough but gentle cleansing, regular stimulation with massage and generous quantities of oil and moisture. It also needs extra careful protection. Washing dry skin with soap and water not only removes grime but also the natural oils protecting the skin. A moisturizer increases the water content of the outer layers of the skin and gives it a soft, moist look.
Use nondetergent, neutral-pH products to cleanse your skin. Avoid using any commercial soap. And always touch your face gently. Double-cleanse with a cream, leaving a light, thin trace of it on the skin after the second cleansing.
Follow a bath or a shower with a mild application of baby oil. Massage your face with home-made nourishing cream every night before retiring. Be generous with the cream in the areas surrounding the eyes where tiny lines and crows feet are born.
Avoid coming in contact with highly alkaline soaps and detergents like washing sodas and powders which contain highly alkaline and drying ingredients.
Moistening with water, then applying a thin film of air-excluding moisturizer, restores the suppleness of the dry skin.
Morning Skin Cleanser/Rejuvenator
Every morning 15 minutes before taking your bath
1 egg yolk
1 teaspoon orange juice
1 teaspoon olive oil and
few drops of rose water
few drops of lime juice
Mix the above ingredients together and apply on your skin.
Beauty Mask for Dry Skin
1 teaspoon of honey,
1/2 teaspoon of olive oil and
few drops of rose water
Mix the ingredients thoroughly and use as a mask.
Common Sense Recommendations
Evening primrose oil supplements are beneficial for skin. They contain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an essential fatty acid reputed to strengthen skin cells and boost their moisture content.
Get sufficient sleep as the skin's cellular repair activity is at its optimum during this resting phase.
Exercise benefits skin as it boosts circulation and encourages blood flow. Regular exercise will nourish and cleanse your skin from within.
To nourish and smooth the skin, mash half an avocado and mix with a few drops of fresh lemon juice and spread over the cleansed skin. Leave on for fifteen to twenty minutes, then dab off the excess with a soft tissue. Splash the skin alternately with cold and warm water.
For a quick and easy skin pack, mash a ripe banana with a fork and spread it thickly onto the face and throat. Leave on for ten to fifteen minutes and then rinse with lukewarm water.
Laser Skin Resurfacing
What is it?
In laser skin resurfacing a laser is used to remove areas of damaged or wrinkled skin, layer by layer. The procedure is most commonly used to minimize the appearance of fine lines, especially around the mouth and the eyes. However, it is also effective in treating facial scars or areas of uneven pigmentation. Laser resurfacing may be performed on the whole face or in specific regions. Often, the procedure is done in conjunction with another cosmetic operation, such as a facelift or eyelid surgery.
In addition to laser procedures, many resurfacing methods are available, including botox injections, chemical peels, injectible fillers, and surgical procedures (e.g. facelift, browlift, blepharoplasty). Individuals looking to rejuvenate their skin should consider factors such as the ease, effectiveness, and safety of the procedure; post-procedural effects; potential for complications; length of recovery; and duration of benefits.
A patient’s age may also be a useful general guideline for choosing skin procedures. Some physicians recommend chemical peels for patients in their thirties, collagen or fat implants for patients over age 40, and laser resurfacing after age 50.
Some experts also find combinations of procedures to be useful among older patients. For example, a patient might use laser surgery for deep lines around the mouth and chemical peels on the rest of the face. A combination of blepharoplasty (eye lift) and laser resurfacing might be used to rejuvenate the eye area. Injecting wrinkles with botox before performing laser resurfacing of crow’s feet can significantly improve results there.
Some Uncertainty and Risk
In about 1% of patients, scarring and infections may occur. The surgeon’s experience is the main factor in determining likelihood of these complications. In darker-skinned patients, unpredictable lightening of the skin can be a troublesome effect. Patients with herpes simplex may experience flare-ups of fever, facial pain, and flu-like symptoms following the procedure. The long-term effects on the skin are not yet known.
Laser pulses target the surface layer of the skin, vaporizing water and the skin’s surface without affecting deeper layers. A new surface layer will then grow back – a layer that is soft, wrinkle-free, and younger looking. The heat generated during the process also shortens the collagen fibers in the skin, which restores some of its elasticity.
Different types of lasers are available. They vary according to their wavelength and pulse duration. These differences account for the depth at which they target the skin, the level of heat generated, and the likelihood of affecting surrounding tissues.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) lasers – the most powerful laser, used for deep wrinkles. Note: CO2 lasers may be unsafe for people who have had silicone injections, as the laser can burn and scar the skin over implanted areas.
Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser - gentler than the CO2 laser and effective for mild wrinkles. It targets tissue more precisely than the CO2 laser and causes less damage to surrounding tissue. Recovery after Er:YAG laser treatment is shorter than that after CO2 laser treatment. When used at sufficient depth, some surgeons can remove deep wrinkles with the CO2as effectively as the more powerful CO2 laser, but with fewer side effects. The Variable Pulse YAG laser alternates between pulses that destroy tissue with pulses that heat the skin, and this process also resurfaces the skin as effectively as CO2 but with fewer side effects.
A combination of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatments is now gaining popularity. In this treatment, the Er:YAG laser is first used to remove the epidermis, followed by use of the CO2 laser to achieve contraction of underlying collagen. This produces the collagen-tightening benefits of CO2 therapy but with minimal damage to surrounding tissues.
NLite – Non-ablative laser resurfacing, also called Photorejuvenation, uses light energy to stimulate the new growth of collagen without removing skin tissue. While it is less powerful at removing wrinkles than other resurfacing methods, it may be used for delicate areas such as the eyes and neck, and causes little irritation.
Lotions for Skin Care
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